Overview of Water in Algeria

Overview of Water in Algeria

In Algeria, natural water potential is about 19 billion cubic meters (BCM) per year, while water demand keeps increasing day after day and approximately 450 cubic meters per capita per year (RAPPORT D’INFORMATION, 2011). Water resources is Algeria vary from north to south. Table 2.1 below demonstrates the available water resources in this country, where renewable surface water has the highest volume (11 BCM) and distributed between north and south. Surface water inflows are low in the Saharan basin, with a total of 0.5 BCM per year. In contrast, the north relies mainly on surface water, since almost 7 BCM is captured by a number of medium and large dams. Table 2.1: Water resource availability Water resource Volume (BMC) Region Renewable surface water 11 North and south Renewable groundwater 2.5 North Non-renewable groundwater 6.1 South Groundwater resources are estimated to total 7.6 BCM, but demand is much higher in the north of the country due to population distribution. Important aquifers in the Sahara meet 96% of water demand in the south (Bouchekima et al., 2008). Chapter 02: Study Area 22 In the north, the aquifers are naturally recharged with 1.9 BCM per year, with total withdrawals equal to 2.4 BCM per year, because they are shallow. They are exploited using wells and springs. The deficit is mainly due to a lack of effective groundwater management, linked to poor knowledge of the resource, an increase in the number of illegal wells and a lack of coordination between the water authorities (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2009; British geological survey, 2018). The south is characterized by two biggest aquifers that are the Complex Terminal and the Continental Interlayer. They are fossil groundwater. Which form the transboundary North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS). The Complex Terminal (100-400 meters in deep) and the Continental Interlayer (1,000-1,500 meters in deep) contains significant reserves of 30,000-40,000 BCM (Figure 2.1). These aquifers are exploited mainly using deep boreholes, whereas the shallow ones are exploited using the traditional foggara system (Ibid). Fig 2.1 Groundwater storage Currently, the deficit between supply and demand water is around 1.3 BCM. Figure 2.2 illustrates water distribution in Algeria, which are irregular distribution (Fanak, 2020). The overall demand has quadrupled over the last 40 years and currently exceeds more than half the volume of potentially mobilizable resources. At this rate, the maximum limit of hydraulic potential is projected to be reached before 2050 (FAO, GIZ/BGR/OSS, 2016).

Sedrata location

Sedrata is a municipality and large city in Souk Ahras Province, Algeria, with total population of 54 205 in 2017(ADE). It is semi-arid region characterized by warm and temperate climate with 14.2°C of temperature and 523mm of precipitation in average. It is located between 36°07’42” North latitude and 7°31’53” East longitude in the North East of the country, close to the border with Tunisia. It is situated in the West of Souk Ahras. The location map of the study area in sedrata city is given in figure 2.3. Fig 2.3 Location map of study area in Sedrata city Souk Ahras province is located in the north-east of this country, 640 km from Algiers, it is limited by the wilaya of El Taref and Guelma from the north, from the west by the wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi, from the south by the wilaya of Tébessa and by Tunisia from east (An 88 km border strip). Chapter 02: Study Area 25 The Wilaya of Souk-Ahras covers a total area of 4,360 km2 with total population equals to 505,337 Inhabitants. Three types of consumers encountered in Sedrata, domestic, agriculture and industry, however only domestic water usage is considered. It represents 89.17% (ADE) of the total water usage. In fact, the type of house is an important background variable determining the water use practice of households. It has a direct link with demand of water. In this study the total population consists of metered domestic consumers of water consumption living in single houses (not collective apartment). The study area is an explorative one, because no other study has come up in the area. 2.4.Water in Sedrata City In general, Souk Ahras province continues to grow resulting an increase of water demand. In the region it exists 29 wells under exploitation having capacity of 280 l/s (18 130 m3 /d), 2 boreholes with capacity equals to 41 l/s (260 m3 /d), 9 water sources (25 l/s or 2 000 m3 /D) and 20 pumping station with 584 l/s (50 400 m3 /d). It has also 100 distribution tanks (80 280 m3 ), 397 km 2 of adduction linear network and 1669 km of drinking water distribution network. According to ADE of Souk Ahras, in Sedrata 2 types of local resources. Surface water, treated from Ain Dalia dam which represents 4000 m3 per day and underground water (1760 m3 per day). this water is piped to 58 164 inhabitants. From the total produced volume (5760 m3 per day), only 4614 m3 per day is distributed to residents of the region. The volume represents 13,77 % of the total distributed volume (33 507 m3 /day) of Souk Ahras province. Table 2.3 shows the distribution program of Sedrata and some regions of Souk Ahras piped by Ain Dalia dam. One of the main water problems faced in the region is that wells of Guedrane underground water is fully exploited. Also, the piped distribution system is too old. Table 2.4 illustrates current exploitation wells in the region. As mentioned, the local resources constituted by surface (Ain Dalia Dam) and underground water were no longer sufficient to satisfy the basic needs of the city. Thus, the government then turned to another surface resources, and invested heavily in the implementation of drinking water treatment station at the Oued Charef dam. The structure of the hydraulic sector is intended to treat a volume of 8,000 m3 (against 4,000 m3 ) of drinking water, in favor of the population of Sedrata, the second urban agglomeration in the border of Souk Ahras.  

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